Individuals who have earned Certified Cicerone®, Advanced Cicerone®, or Master Cicerone® are tested and proven experts in beer while "beer sommelier" is a self-designation that can be adopted by anyone. Because there are no criteria for the title of "beer sommelier" and because those who use the title have not subjected their knowledge and skills to an independent examination, consumers and employers can’t be sure just what a non-Certified Beer Server knows or how they treat and serve the beer.